History and Components of a Modern Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are critical for some of the largest corporations in the world. Each mainframe has more than one modern processor, RAM ranging from a few megabytes to multiple-score gigabytes, and disk space and other storage beyond anything on a microcomputer. A mainframe can control multiple tasks and serve thousands of users every second without downtime.

The chief difference between mainframes and other computing systems is the level of processing that takes place. Mainframes are also different in terms of data bandwidth, organization, reliability, and control. Big organizations-banking, healthcare, insurance, and telecom companies, etc.-use mainframes for processing critical commercial data.

In this article, we discuss the evolution of mainframe computers and their components.

History of mainframe computers

IBM developed a critical part of mainframe computing, the Automatic Sequenced Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for arithmetic operations, in 1944. From the late 1950s through the 1970s, several companies manufactured mainframes: IBM, Burroughs, RCA, NCR, General Electric, and Sperry Rand, for example. Since then, System / 390 by IBM is the only kind of mainframe in use. It evolved from IBM's System / 360 in 1960.

An Early mainframe occupied a huge space. New technologies have drastically reduced the size and cost of the hardware. A current-generation mainframe can fit in a small closet.

Components of a modern mainframe computer

Like a PC, a mainframe has many components for processing data: operating system, motherboard or main board, processor, controllers, storage devices, and channels.

• Motherboard: The motherboard of a mainframe computer consists of a printed circuit that allows CPU, RAM, and other hardware components to function together through a concept called "Bus architecture". The motherboard has device slots for input cards and cable interfaces for various external devices. Where PC motherboards use 32- or 64-bit buses, mainframes use 128-bit buses. General instructions regarding the internal architecture help the motherboard connect to the other devices and retrieve data using binary computation.

• Processor: A CPU acts as the central processing point in mainframe architecture and includes an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) for performing arithmetic calculations. It also works as a controller for the bus architecture and handles traffic and data requests. The processing power of mainframes is much higher compared to PCs, so that they can handle huge amounts of data.

• Storage devices: Storage devices are for entering, retrieving, storing, and recording data. Many are external devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and punch card readers, all connected to terminals of the mainframe and controlled by the CPU. Their capacity for data storage can be hundred or even thousands of times that of a PC.

• Communication controllers: Communication controllers allow remote computers to access a mainframe. With the help of networks, LAN or WAN, communication controllers establish connections with various devices, perform data transmission over communication channels, and keep track of users at terminals.

• Channels: The "channels" are the cables used to connect the CPU and the main storage to other parts of the system and make sure that data is moved in a systematic way without losing its integrity.

Modern mainframes have advanced features such as expanded service management capabilities, cross-platform integration facilities, etc. And so are suitable for critical data center operations. The cost of maintaining modern mainframes is much less compared to older models.

A Career As Restaurant Owner Vs Restaurant Manager

There is a big difference between a career as a restaurant owner and a career as a restaurant manager. Restaurant managers sometimes go on to own their own restaurants, restaurant owners often do a great deal of managerial work and both are heavily invested in the success of the restaurant and involved in its daily operations, but the general similarities end there. The specific roles and responsibilities of a restaurant owner vs. a restaurant manager will be explained in further detail below.

A Career as a Restaurant Owner

Restaurant owners are responsible for overseeing the entire operations of a restaurant, even when they hire someone else to manage it. They make an initial investment and either buys the restaurant from someone else or starts his or her own restaurant. Owners must make additional investments down the line when the restaurant needs new equipment and supplies, or when the business has outgrown its location and needs to move or expand, and they will also be responsible for cleaning up the mess if the business fails. The owner has a vested interest in the success of the restaurant, not just because it’s his or her job, but because it’s his or her investment, brainchild and often a dream come true. The owner takes the most financial risk, but he or she also gets the biggest payoff if the restaurant is a success.

They vary in their level of responsibility in the kitchen and on the floor. Some owners hire other people to do everything and trust they will make the right decisions, while others are there every day, interacting with customers and staff and taking on managerial duties. Many of them must work long hours every day of the week as they get their business off the ground, but if it becomes a success, they get the opportunity to sit back and relax a bit.

A Career as a Restaurant Manager

They work closely with restaurant owners to ensure that the business runs smoothly. They also have a vested interest in making sure the restaurant is operating at a profit; in fact, this is their primary concern. The manager has pay increases, bonuses and profit shares to entice him or her to succeed, and the fear of losing his or her job to entice him or her to avoid failure. This career requires skills in budgeting, leadership, communication, analysis and planning, as well as a knowledge and appreciation of the culinary arts and customer service.

6 Things You Must Consider Before a Canadian Motorcycle Ride

If you plan to cruise the highways and drive a motorcycle in Canada the following information will be useful to consider both for your own safety, and for your own piece of mind.

Canadian Highways and Rural Roadways

Whether you decide to rent a motorcycle or drive your own, Canada has a massive system of well managed city streets and highways which will bring you just about anywhere you want to go.

The main highway through Canada is the Trans-Canada Highway, which goes coast to coast. The distance from the east coast to the west coast is about 8000 km or around 4,900 miles. You could go on a Canadian motorcycle ride for weeks and never get to see everything.

Motorcycle Rentals

Renting a motorcycle in Canada may be something you want to consider. Canada has several motorcycle rental companies found near the major cities and towns. Rates vary depending on the season, type of motorcycle and length of rental. The minimum age to rent a vehicle in Canada is usually anywhere from 21-25 years old. If you plan to travel through the western provinces on your motorcycle you might want to look into the many popular tourist attractions, and the great roads to travel.

In order to rent in most cases you will need to have a major credit card. Requirements may vary from each province. Be sure to reserve your motorcycle ahead of time during peak travel times, which are usually from mid May to November.

Camping With Your Motorcycle

Most Canadian provincial and national parks, private campgrounds and other conservation areas allow you to camp with your motorcycle.

All of the Canadian provinces have a government agency that is responsible for tourism. You should check their websites or call for information to get get maps, and possible promotional offers, and maybe even some more Canadian motorcycle information. If you plan to stay in a campground near a popular park like Banff, Whistler, and Fundy National Park you should book in advance.

Driving Laws- Canadian Motorcycle Driving

In Canada the road laws are very similar to the rules in most US states. Most road safety laws and regulations are determined at the provincial and territorial level, so make sure you know the particular rules for the province you plan to be visiting. One rule for motorcyclists throughout all Canadian Provinces is that you must wear a motorcycle helmet if you are driving a motorcycle in Canada.

Other things to consider while driving through all the Canadian provinces on a motorcycle are that you are allowed to make a right turn on red lights in most cities through the country after coming to a complete stop. Be careful because because in some areas of Quebec you are not allowed to do this. For more information, check with the Government of Quebec's website.

In all Canadian provinces pedestrians have the right-of-way and you must yield to pedestrians at crosswalks. The speed limit on the most rural highways is usually around 90-100 km / hr or about 55-65 mph. Speed ​​limits are enforced primarily by the RCMP in rural areas, and municipal police in most major cities throughout Canada.

If you are rolled over by a police officer you must provide proof of insurance, driver's license and registration.

Weather

Many people who are not from Canada picture the country as having vast piles of snow and snowmobiles as the main mode of transportation. Nothing could be more false. In most provinces you can ride a motorcycle 8-9 months out of the year. In Vancouver British Columbia and other western cities and towns, people drive year round. The summer months can get very humid in Canada, and there are many Canadian motorcycle events held across the country on an annual basis.

Motorcycle Insurance Canada, Driver's License and Permit

If you plan a ride a motorcycle through Canada and you are from the United States., Your driver's license is valid in Canada. Be sure to bring proof of motorcycle insurance by talking to your insurance company for a free Non-resident Inter Provincial Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance Card before you leave, or carry your policy itself.

If you're driving a borrowed motorcycle, you should bring a letter signed by the owner that says you are allowed. Also for a rented motorcycle, carry a copy of the rental contract.

Benefits of Shopping Malls

The earliest malls were Paris Arcades in the 19th century. They became very popular with shoppers instantly. Since then shopping malls have evolved to suit people’s tastes. Shopping malls are the most preferred shopping areas in our times among shoppers across the globe.

Earlier shops in shopping centres catered to the elite. But it is no longer the case. Now, there are shops in shopping malls which cater to different budgets.

Shoppers prefer shopping centres/malls to stand-alone shops for various reasons:

1. They have their own parking facility.

2. There is a wide variety of products available.

3. There are products from competing producers available under one roof. So, they can compare and make purchases.

4. They have facilities such as restrooms.

5. They have gaming zones.

6. There are food courts with a wide variety of cuisine.

7. There are movie theatres in shopping centres.

All these features making shopping a fun-filled and satisfying experience.

Since shopping centres are the most sought-after shopping destinations, it is beneficial for a businessman to set up a store in a shopping mall. Generally, retail store owners rent shop space in a mall. Renting store space benefits the businessman in many ways.

• Shopping malls are usually located in prime locations which are easily accessible. If a retailer sets up a store in a mall, he can have the shop in a prime location with a minimal investment. On the other hand, if he attempts purchasing a shop in such a location, he may not be able to afford it. A rented property implies low initial investment. This enables the businessman to utilize the saved amount on his business.

• He can attract clients of competitors who have shops in the mall. This enables him to build a clientele easily.

• He does not have to direct his time and efforts towards the maintenance of the shop. This helps him to focus on his business.

• Generally, the charges for utilities are included in the rent. Hence, he does not have to involve himself in these matters.

• Many a time, businessmen set up pop-up stores in shopping centres in order to attract customers for new products. This is a popular location for a pop-up store as it is a high traffic area.

With so many benefits of shopping malls to shoppers as well as businessmen we can conclude that shopping centres will only rise in popularity with time.